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“吃”鋼的細菌

文章來源:金屬研究所   發布時間:2019-04-24  【字號:     】  

  神秘的微生物令人敬畏,但又誘惑著人類對于它的探知。它無時無刻不吸引著科學家對它進行探知、發現。復雜的微生物世界給人類拋向了一個具有永恒挑戰性的命題。同時,微生物也成了人類的朋友,從我們一出生,體內就有一些微生物,它們是我們身體中非常復雜的一部分,它們與我們互動,而我們對它們卻知之甚少。

  不容小覷的力量

  作為地球上古老的生物,微生物在自然界分布極廣。無論是人跡罕至的南北極還是環境苛刻的沙漠;無論是神秘的外太空還是深邃的海底世界,都有它們的足跡。人們利用微生物來生產抗菌素、維生素等藥品,幫助人類對抗疾病;利用微生物來生產飲料,啤酒,微生物肥料、微生物殺蟲劑等產品服務工業,甚至可以生產出電池所需要的燃料解決能源短缺問題。那么是不是所有微生物都是對人類有利的?然而,答案是令人失望的。

  微生物并沒有我們想象的那么友好,在服務人類的同時,它也“吃”掉了我們的GDP。

  微生物與鋼也能產生“電火花”

  眾所周知,不是所有的微生物都對我們有利。當微生物遇到鋼材也會產生“電火花”,使得管道、海洋船舶等工業裝備受到嚴重腐蝕——微生物腐蝕(MIC)。我們先看兩個例子:

  2000年,韓國石油天然氣公司一條X65輸油管道發生腐蝕失效。調查發現管道表面覆蓋著一層黑色沉淀物,滴加鹽酸后散發出臭雞蛋氣味,表明腐蝕產物為硫化物。證實了埋地管線剝離涂層下受到了土壤中硫酸鹽還原菌 (SRB) 和產酸菌 (APB) 的腐蝕。同年,我國某型艦艇船底在下水后不到2年內就發生了多處的腐蝕穿孔。經檢測艙內積水部位單位體積內硫酸鹽還原菌SRB 數量約是舷外海水的103-104倍,說明 SRB 在艦船的艙底水中大量存在。2003年,新疆1條X52級輸油管道發生爆管泄露事件。此前該管道曾多次發生內腐蝕穿孔泄漏事故,但令人不解的是均發生在管道沿線起伏管段。事故最終調查認為該管段起伏較大,原油流量較低,管道低洼處有微量游離水或積水聚積,從而使得硫酸鹽還原菌(SRB)大量繁殖導致局部腐蝕失效。據國際腐蝕工程師協會(NACE) 調查結果顯示,2013 年美國的腐蝕成本已經達到2.5 萬億美元,超過GDP 的3.4%。而其中由微生物腐蝕造成的損失約占20%。可見,微生物已經在慢慢地吃掉我們的“GDP”。

  微生物腐蝕防治

  腐蝕是一種常見的自然現象。大多數的腐蝕都是物質與環境相互作用的電化學過程。那么微生物是怎樣參與腐蝕過程的呢?科學家研究表明微生物參與下的腐蝕金屬表面附著具有腐蝕能力的生物膜,在生物膜中微生物分泌的生物活性酶的作用下,細菌的代謝產物硫化物與金屬陽極溶解產生的亞鐵離子反應生成鐵硫化物,從而參與并加速腐蝕過程。

  目前科學家對于微生物腐蝕的機理也有了初步認識,并提出了多種措施防治微生物腐蝕。例如:

  (1)表面技術:研發抗生物污染的有機涂層,已經廣泛地用于埋地管線、建筑物外墻、海洋結構材料的防護;

  (2)電化學保護:采用更低的陰極保護電位來控制微生物引起的鋼鐵厭氧腐蝕,同時陰極保護與有機涂層聯合使用也有效地彌補了有機涂層的缺欠;

  (3)生物抑制劑:目前采用殺菌劑注入工業水系統中,也可以作為防治細菌腐蝕的方法;

  (4)實時監測:大多數的腐蝕都可以通過早期監測來采取控制措施從而減緩腐蝕,避免事故發生。因此對腐蝕過程中微生物的生長,數量,生物膜的厚度等進行監測,也有助于我們采取控制措施。

  通過上述案例,我們看到微生物不容小覷的力量,只有了解微生物腐蝕,控制微生物腐蝕,利用微生物腐蝕,這樣才能為工業裝備保駕護航。而微生物腐蝕的復雜性注定控制腐蝕過程是長期斗爭的過程,關于微生物腐蝕,國內外科學家們一直在行動,齊心協力,貢獻才智,讓我們與微生物腐蝕宣戰,抗爭到底!

  作者:韋博鑫,中國科學院金屬研究所




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